Inactivity is America's core problem.
Instead of movement, Americans have grown to depend on drugs; pharmaceutical drugs, recreational drugs, any and all kinds of drugs.
The biological process by which all these drugs produce their effects is through receptor binding.
Receptor binding is the attachment of a ligand to a binding domain on a nerve cell.
The stimulation may originate elsewhere but all sensations are felt, perceived or otherwise understood, by the neuron exchanges that take place in the brain.
Specific areas control specific functions. One area of interest is the reward and gratification center.
Despite many distinct actions in the brain, all types of addictions converge in producing a common action, activation of the brain's reward circuitry.
The most important part of this circuitry is the mesolimbic dopamine system.
Compounds that result in bindings in this system are addictive. All addictions that lead to dopamine bindings in the Ventral Tegmental area of the brain are based on reward-related motivation.
These dopamine receptors respond to both hedonic stimulants as well as negative ones.
Eating chocolate and living through an earthquake both involve increased amounts of dopamine.
Proper binding is indicative of health. Excessive binding results in addiction.
Improper receptor binding is responsible for most diseases throughout the body. This is especially true when carbohydrates or fats are involved.
Addictions take place in the brain. It is a chronic process by which steady-state levels of a substance becomes incorporated into normal being.
Addiction requires the need for greater doses to achieve the same result or experience. This is termed tolerance.
Un-satisfaction, due to the absence of the drug, is dependence.
Tolerance and dependence are the classical signs of drug addiction.
Alcohol, cocaine, opioids, nicotine, chocolate, fat and sugar, exert their effect by binding with neuronal receptors.
These neurons instantaneously transmit their instruction that culminates in the production of dopamine. Once the receptor binds to its ligand, a signal is transmitted to the nerve cell's DNA enabling the synthesis of more such receptors.
The signals funnel into the mesolimic dopamine system which is the heart of the reward-gratification center of the brain. All controlled substances as well all addictive behavior owe their addictions to the ability to stimulate an increase in dopamine within this center.
The more dopamine formed, the stronger the reaction and more addictive the substance or behavior.
In one instance, steroids enter the nucleus and bind with the DNA matrix to cause their effects. The other pathway is for the drug or ligand to bind with cell membrane receptors and from here, stimulate a second messenger to produce an effect.
Receptors embedded in membranes remain in a state of agitation until bound. When brain receptors are bound or stimulated, they produce euphoria. They become agitated and irritable when they are unbound.
Brain activity is needed to interpret all the data received via the senses.
Brain activity is run by receptor bonding. Millions of neurotransmitters biding to synaptic nerve synapses or intraneural binding domains to allow the brain to experience its world.
An addiction occurs when receptors require foreign substances to bind to.
The effect of these substances are to either instill euphoria, alter mood or dull pain. They accomplish this by mimicking the natural molecules that normally bind with these receptors (beta-endorphins), or by prolonging the effects of neurotransmitters like serotonin.
Olfactory, ocular and gustatory stimuli interact with receptors to produce the senses of smell, sight and taste.
Receptors become more sensitive to the stimuli, the more they are exposed to them.
Receptors become more sensitive when they exist in higher numbers.
The younger a person is, the most vulnerable they are to receptor recruitment and addiction.
Drugs and their ability to addict humans to them presents governments with a difficult dilema, how to control them and still remain a free natiom